Early Academic Standards Consider, for example, some of the fourth grade questions from an 1862 geography test in

While these questions were reflective of basic fourth grade knowledge in 1862, today this material is studied only in much higher grades – if at all.) Consider also the basic math content of previous generations. Ray’s Arithmetic was one of the most popular elementary math texts in early American schools; notice some of its questions: I insured 2/3 of a shop worth $3600, and 4/5 of a house worth $6000, paying $126: what was the rate of insurance? How much money must be given with nine $100 shares at 15% discount, in exchange for eight $100 bonds at 2% discount? These were elementary math problems during the 1860s! Consider also the math problems from an 1877 mental math text (that is, a text in which students solved the problems mentally – no pencil or paper allowed): A boat worth $864 – of which 1/8 belonged to A, 1/4 to B, and the rest to C – was lost; what loss did each sustain, it having been insured for $500? On a farm, there are 60 animals – horses, cows, and sheep; for each horse there are 3 cows, and for each cow there are 2 sheep: how many animals of each kind? 3 If 7 men can do a piece of work in 4 days, in what time can it be done if 3 of the men leave when the work is half completed? 4These were mental math problems for elementary students in 1877!

Consider the questions in an 1882 history text:What is a “writ of habeas corpus?” What is a bill of attainder? What is an ex-post-facto law?Enumerate the powers denied to the several States.What are bills of credit?How many of today’s elementary students – or, for that matter, how many adults in this so-called modern and advanced age – could answer these questions from a century ago? One final example of the educational rigor of previous generations is illustrated by the Federalist Papers. 6 Written in 1787-1788 by three prominent Founding Fathers (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) to explain why a federal Constitution was needed, even today this work is still considered the single most authoritative source on the intent of the Constitution. A law professor in

FEDERALIST PAPERS authors: james

A very good post and an excellent blog. I am now a follower. Thanks, Steve @ http://www.study-aids.co.uk

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Posted by: Studyaidsuk | 09/17/2011 at 03:05 AM